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Acoustic backscatter in the water column

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  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR177) as part of the Discovery 2010 programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder at 38, 120 and 200 kHz. The EK60 was run continuously from Stanley (Falkland Islands) to Signy (South Orkney Islands), then to South Georgia across the Scotia Sea in the austral summer from December 2007 - February 2008. Dedicated acoustic transects were also run at a number of stations within these transects. The EK60 was calibrated during JR177 (10-11th February 2008). More information about the calibration can be found in the Cruise Report for JR177: https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/information_and_inventories/cruise_inventory/report/jr177.pdf JR177 was the second of three cruises which comprise the field studies of the British Antarctic Survey''s (BAS) core science Discovery 2010 programme, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council.

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR179) as part of the BIOFLAME-BIOPEARL programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder. Data were collected throughout the cruise which ran through the Drake Passage, Bellingshausen Sea and Amundsen Sea in the Southern Ocean, from February to April 2008. The raw data files (Simrad .raw format) are held by the Polar Data Centre (PDC) at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS).

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR161) as part of the Discovery 2010 programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder at 38, 120 and 200 kHz. The EK60 was run continuously from Stanley (Falkland Islands) to Signy (South Orkney Islands), then to South Georgia across the Scotia Sea in the austral spring (October - December) of 2006. Dedicated acoustic transects were also run at eight stations within these transects. The EK60 was calibrated prior to data collection on a previous cruise (JR159 on 13-14th October 2006). More information about the calibration can be found in the Cruise Report for JR159: https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/information_and_inventories/cruise_inventory/report/jr152_jr159.pdf JR161 was the first of three cruises which comprise the field studies of the British Antarctic Survey''s (BAS) core science Discovery 2010 programme, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council.

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR200) as part of the Discovery 2010 programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder. This cruise ran two transects (Stanley to Signy and Signy to South Georgia) across the Scotia Sea in the austral autumn (March - April) of 2009. Within these transects, there were a series of stations at which dedicated acoustic transects were run, although the EK60 was run continuously throughout the cruise. JR200 was the third of three cruises which comprise the field studies of the Discovery 2010 programme. The programme was designed to analyse interactions in the Southern Ocean ecosystem. The raw data files (Simrad .raw format) are held by the Polar Data Centre (PDC) at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS).

  • This dataset consists of current velocity measurements of the water column from an upward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) deployed on the seabed and also includes CTD casts from an SBE 911+ CTD taken a long the Wyville Thompson Ridge. The mooring is situated in the region of the Wyville Thomson Ridge – a notable bathymetric feature running north-west from the Scottish shelf towards the Faroe Bank. The gully present between the Ridge and the parallel Ymir Ridge is the study site chosen for mooring work that began in 2003 and ended in 2013. Mooring deployment durations have typically ranged from between five and twelve months. Successive deployments have enabled a multi-year time series to develop. There have, however, been periods of instrumentation loss, which account for some gaps in the overall record (most noticeably during 2008/2009). Servicing of the mooring has been achieved using various research vessels and has often been incorporated into the schedule of the annual cruises occupying the Extended Ellett Line. The mooring consists of an anchored buoy housing an RDI Long Ranger ADCP, designed to rest on the seabed, with the instrument facing upwards. Current velocity measurements from the mooring help to provide valuable insight into regional ocean circulation. A small, poorly quantified, component of the southward-flowing deep water from the Arctic cascades over the Wyville Thomson Ridge from the Faroe Bank Channel into the northern Rockall Trough. Maintaining this time series will afford a better understanding of this outflow. The Wyville Thomson mooring work is led by Toby Sherwin at the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS).

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR15004) as part of the British Antarctic Survey''s Long Term Monitoring and Survey programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder at 38, 70, 120 and 200 kHz. The EK60 was run almost continuously from Stanley (Falkland Islands) to Signy (South Orkney Islands), then back to Stanley (Falkland Islands) in the austral summer from January 2016 - February 2016.

  • This dataset comprises hydrographic sections, together with measurements collected by ocean gliders and moored instrumentation deployed during the UK Overturning In the Subpolar North Atlantic Programme (UK-OSNAP). UK-OSNAP is the UK contribution to the International OSNAP Programme. The dataset also includes modelling output informed by the observations. OSNAP observations are focused on two lines: i) OSNAP West, extending from south Labrador to southwest Greenland and ii) OSNAP East from southeast Greenland to Scotland. Data collection commenced June 2014 and is ongoing. UK_OSNAP consists of cruises JR302, PE399, DY053, DY054, two alternating glider deployments, current meter moorings (five at Cape Farewell and three in the Rockall trough) and ADCPs in the Rockall Trough Shelf Edge Current. The model data addresses the Subpolar Gyre circulation and fluxes using data assimilation and theoretical analysis. The datasets assembled as part of UK-OSNAP provide a continuous record of full-depth, trans-basin mass, heat, and freshwater fluxes in the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre. These, coupled with the associated modelling exercises help improve the understanding of the circulation and fluxes of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre. UK-OSNAP, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) is led by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC). UK-OSNAP is a partnership between NOC, Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS), University of Oxford and the University of Liverpool. It is part of international OSNAP that is led by USA and includes 10 further partner groups in Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands and China. Investigators: National Oceanography Centre (NOC): Dr Penny Holliday, Dr Sheldon Bacon, Dr Chris Wilson, Neill Mackay. Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS): Dr Stuart Cunningham, Prof Mark Inall, Loic Houpert. University of Oxford: Prof David Marshall, Dr Helen Johnson. University of Liverpool: Prof Ric Williams, Dr Vassil Roussenov. The full dataset is still being assembled and currently consists of near real time glider measurements made (to date) on the project, the mooring dataset and cruise data. NERC have added a 2-year extension to UK-OSNAP, until October 2020. This covers a 2-year deployment of 3 moorings in the Iceland Basin as partof the international OSNAP programme. The moorings will be recovered in 2020.

  • The data set comprises acoustic and associated environmental data from multi-parameter underwater acoustic experiments undertaken in the Gulf of Lions, N.W. Mediterranean and Loch Ness, Scotland. Measurements were made over the period 30 January 1995 to 22 September 1995. Of primary interest were shallow water (10-200m), medium range (1-10km) channels at communication frequencies in the 10-100kHz range. Modulation techniques used include: Carrier Wave, ASK, PSK, FSK, Multi-ASK, Multi-PSK and Multi-FSK. Multi-parameter underwater acoustic experiments were carried out under high level control and in total more than 36 Gigabytes of acoustic and associated environmental data were gathered. Experiments were carried out at medium depth (50-100m) in the Gulf of Lions and deeper water (50-200m) in Loch Ness, and the data were stored on a series of CD-ROMs. A suite of tests was performed over set ranges (1km, 7km, etc.). In general, each range was contained on a set of three CD-ROMs which specifically referred to individual parameters set for that particular range (e.g. location, gain levels, projector and hydrophone depths). Alongside the data recordings, the IRIG 'B' time signal was also recorded during all experiments to allow derivation of precise timings of all signal transmissions and receptions. This information is also contained on the CD-ROMs. Associated environmental parameters were recorded and documented. These data were collected using CTD profilers, thermistor chains, tide gauges, current flow meters and an ORETECH Weatherpak-400. The raw data were logged in an ASCII format on a DAT cartridge. The primary aim of EEVMAC (European Experimentally Validated Models for Acoustic Channels) was the generation of signals and the recording of data for propagation model validation in connection with the characterisation of underwater acoustic channels. Data were collected by researchers from Heriot-Watt University, UK and the Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Marines (LPCM), France. The British Oceanographic Data Centre holds 19 Gigabytes of edited data on CD-ROM, along with copies of the raw environmental data. Further details on the environmental data can be sought from Laboratoire d’Oceanographie de Villefranche, formerly LPCM.

  • This dataset consists of optical and acoustic seabed profiles of near bed hydrodynamics, bed morphology and suspended material in the water. Fieldwork was carried out by a team of researchers over a two week period, 24 May to 04 June 2013, surveying an area near Hilbre Island in the Dee Estuary. Measurements were taken in the inter-tidal and sub-tidal zones. Measurements were collected at three sites within the sampling area. A SEDbed suite of acoustic and optical instruments were deployed at each station to collect data. These instruments included CTD, LISST, Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Bedform and suspended sediment imager, Multi-tier sediment trap and 3-D Acoustic Rippler Profiler. The data collection described formed the fieldwork component of the NERC-funded project “Realistic Sedimentary Bedform Prediction: Incorporating Physical and Biological Cohesion (COHBED)”. The project was undertaken with the aim to produce information about the growth, movement and stability of bedforms that consist of natural mixtures of sands and muds. The project was composed of Standard Grant reference NE/I027223/1 as the lead grant with child grants NE/I026863/1, NE/I024402/1, NE/I02478X/1. The lead grant runs from 05 January 2012 to 04 July 2015 and the child grants run from 15 December 2011 to 14 June 2015 (NE/I026863/1), 01 January 2012 to 30 June 2015 (NE/I024402/1), and 01 January 2012 to 31 October 2015 (NE/I02478X/1). Dr Jacobus Hugo Baas of Bangor University, School of Ocean Sciences was the principal investigator of the lead grant of this project. The child grants were led by Dr Sarah Bass of University of Plymouth, School of Engineering, Professor Daniel Roy Parsons of University of Hull, Geography, Environment and Earth Science, and Professor Daniel Paterson of University of St Andrews, Biology, respectively. The data described here have been received as raw files by BODC and will be processed using our in-house systems and made available online in the future.

  • The Monterey Bay Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) collected physical oceanographic data in the Monterey Canyon study area, off the coast of Central California over an 18 month period between October 2015 and April 2017. This project was a long term effort to monitor turbidity currents using a variety of new instruments and technologies to assess movement of water and sediment, assess evolution and shape of the sea floor and monitor physical processes within flows at various spatial scales. Measurements were taken using an array of instruments which include: moorings; sediment traps, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP); transmissometers; vertical profilers; Benthic Instrument Nodes (BIN); Sediment Transport Event Detectors (STEDs); Benthic Event Detectors (BEDs); Autonomous Monitoring Transponder (AMT); wave sensors, autonomous underwater vehicles and wave gliders. The Monterey Bay Coordinated Canyon Experiment project was led by Monterey Bay Aquarium Institute (MBARI) in collaboration with researchers from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Ocean University of China (OUC), National Oceanography Centre (NOC) Southampton and University of Hull, UK. MBARI are responsible for the long term data management of all datasets generated by the project. Datasets are hosted at the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS), a full data report is available from https://www.mbari.org/science/seafloor-processes/geological-changes/coordinated-canyon-experiment-datareport-main-page/.