Water body lipid concentrations
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The Northern Seas Programme dataset comprises hydrographic, biogeochemical, biological and meteorological data. Hydrographic profiles provided measurements of parameters such as temperature, salinity, fluorescence and dissolved oxygen, while current velocities and acoustic backscatter were also measured. A comprehensive water sampling program permitted the collection of biogeochemical data including concentrations of various organic compounds, dissolved gas concentrations and radioactivity. Water samples were also analysed for phytoplankton, zooplankton and viruses. Larger biological samples were obtained from the water column using trawl nets and cetacean distributions were monitored using hydrophone arrays. Sediment samples were collected at various locations and analysed for biogeochemical parameters and zoobenthos. Sample data were supplemented by those derived from experiments, while bathymetry and meteorological parameters were measured across the study area. Data collection was undertaken in the Irish and northern North Seas, across the NE Atlantic and up to the marginal Arctic pack ice zone. This includes the territorial waters of the UK, Norway and the Russian Arctic, and extends from coastal fjords to the ocean margins. The data were collected during the period 2001-2007 over a number of cruises: RRS Discovery cruise D257, RRS James Clark Ross cruises JR75 and JR127, RRS Charles Darwin cruise CD176 and FS Poseidon cruise PO300/2. Measurements were taken using a variety of instrumentation, including conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers with attached auxiliary sensors, bathymetric echosounders, sediment samplers, trawl nets and acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), while incubation chambers were used for shipboard experiments. The programme was designed to advance the understanding of how marine systems in Northern Seas respond to environmental and anthropogenic change and was developed in three themes: Theme A - Understanding fjordic systems insights for coastal and oceanic processes; Theme B - Ocean Margins: the interface between the coastal zone and oceanic realm; Theme C - Measuring and modelling change: sea sensors and bioinformatics. Theme B included the Ellett Line Time Series. The Northern Seas Programme was co-ordinated by the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). Data from the programme are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre.
The dataset contains hydrographic, biogeochemical and biological measurements of ocean and seabed sediment properties. Hydrographic profiles provided measurements of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence to accompany biogeochemical and biological samples, including concentrations of nutrients, particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate organic nitrogen (PON). Emphasis was placed on the collection of benthic data, with numerous core samples being collected and analysed for pigments, biomarkers, lipids and other organic compounds. Samples were also collected and analysed for Holothurian species, while a large volume in situ filtration system was used to measure biogeochemical variables including POC and PON, and particulate iron. Station data were supplemented by continuous underway measurements of bathymetry, current velocities, sea surface salinity, temperature, fluorescence and beam attenuation across the survey area. These were accompanied by underway measurements of surface meteorological parameters including irradiance, air temperature, humidity, sea level pressure and wind velocities. The data were collected across the Crozet Plateau in the Southern Indian Ocean between 1st December 2005 and 14th January 2006 on RRS Discovery cruise D300. Data collection focused on four sites, with repeated hydrographic profiles, water and sediment samples collected at each location. In total, 89 instrumentation deployments were carried out at the four stations, including a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) package and a Megacorer (for sediment sampling). The underway system utilised a hull-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) as well as a thermosalinograph and other standard surface hydrographic and meteorological instruments. Further data were collected using a variety of equipment including an otter trawl (net) and submersible cameras but these data are currently held by the data originators and are undergoing processing so are not included in the parameter and instrument lists above. The principal objective of Benthic CROZEX was to assess the manner in which biogeochemical composition and flux of organic matter to the deep-sea floor drives benthic community structure, dynamics and diversity at sites with contrasting primary production regimes. Investigators from British Antarctic Survey (BAS), Natural History Museum (NHM), National Oceanographic Centre (NOC) and the National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG) were involved. Data management is being undertaken by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) but data processing is ongoing and various data are yet to be submitted to BODC.
The dataset comprises a diverse set of physical, chemical and biological data including: bacteria, carbon, chlorophyll, dissolved gases, light levels, nutrients, phytoplankton, productivity, respiration, salinity, temperature, trace elements and zooplankton. Measurements were gathered from the North Atlantic and Norwegian fjord waters between 1971 and 1998. The data arise from three sources: biological and hydrographic data collected between 1971 and 1975 at Ocean Weather Ship (OWS) India in the North Atlantic; conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts, water samples, net samples and meteorological data from the four week Bergen Mesocosm experiment at Espegrend Marine Biological Field Station (Norway) in 1995; and the six week RRS Discovery cruise 221 to the North East Atlantic in 1996, where physical, chemical and biological data were collected. The data were collected using a variety of methods including: more than 500 CTD and SeaSoar profiles; nearly 1000 water bottle samples; over 600 net hauls; over 450 Secchi disk deployments; nearly 4000 multisizer samples; 23 production experiments; four drifting buoy tracks and 40 days of weather observations. The PRIME programme aimed to lay the basis for mathematical models to describe the role of plankton in biogeochemical fluxes within the oceans which have implications for climate regulation. The project was hosted by the School of Ocean Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor. Data management was undertaken by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and over 95% of the data collected are now assembled on a CD-ROM. The data are accompanied by an extensive users' guide (covering sampling protocol documentation), the structures used to store the data, and the data interrogation tools.
The dataset contains physical, biogeochemical and biological data, including measurements of water temperature, salinity, fluorescence, dissolved gases and current velocities; plankton samples from nets and plankton recorders; water samples for analysis of nutrients, phytoplankton, radioactivity and biogeochemical parameters; benthic cores; meteorological time series (pressure, temperature, humidity, wind velocities); atmospheric samples and ocean-atmosphere fluxes; and results from incubation experiments. The data were collected north of the Crozet Plateau in the Southern Ocean/Southwest Indian Ocean on RRS Discovery cruises D285 (3rd November - 10th December 2004) and D286 (13th December 2004 - 21st January 2005). Much of the data collection focussed on a series of Major Stations (called M1 to M10), with measurements being collected at these stations every two or three days. Conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts were undertaken at each station, providing both hydrographic data and water samples from a range of depths. Other work at each Major Station included zooplankton nets, Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder (LHPR) tows, sediment coring and Argo float deployment. In between Major Stations some additional CTD casts were undertaken. The SeaSoar oceanographic undulator provided further hydrographic data, while hull-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) provided current velocity data across the survey area. In addition, continuous underway measurements of hydrographic and meteorological parameters and surface water samples were collected along the cruise track. Five moorings were deployed, one of which was recovered at the end of D286. The other four, including sediment traps, current profilers and CTDs were deployed for one year. CROZEX (CROZet circulation, iron fertilization and Export production experiment) is a complex, multidisciplinary project to examine, from surface to sediment, the structure, causes and consequences of a naturally occurring annual phytoplankton bloom that forms. This collaborative project involved researchers in Ireland and the UK, and was administered by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), Southampton. Data are managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre. Much of the CROZEX data processing is ongoing and a number of datasets have yet to be submitted to BODC. The data described here are those presently held by BODC, with the exception of the Argo floats (these data are not expected by BODC and should be accessible via the Argo website) and the four year-long mooring deployments (data from these will be submitted to BODC in the future).
The data set comprises a diverse collection of physical, chemical and biological measurements, encompassing over 1000 parameters. There are data from over 1650 conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD)/rosette stations, over 300 core profiles, over 370 sediment trap samples and much, much more. Most of this effort was directed at the region of the east Atlantic margin between La Chapelle Bank and the Goban Spur (between France and Ireland). In addition, there were two secondary areas of interest: the Norwegian Shelf Break just off Tromso and the Iberian Margin, either off Vigo or in the vicinity of the Tagus estuary. Measurements were collected from April 1993 until the end of December 1995 during 55 research cruise legs. Data were collected using a variety of equipment and techniques, including expendable bathythermography (XBTs), CTDs and oceanographic undulators with auxiliary sensors. These hydrographic profiles were accompanied by net hauls, plankton recorder deployments, sediment cores and comprehensive water and air sampling programmes during which a wide variety of chemical and biological parameters were measured. The station data were supplemented by underway measurements of oceanographic and meteorological properties. Results from production and trace metal experiments are also included in the dataset, as are bathymetric data from the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) GEBCO digital Atlas, air-sea flux measurements and data from moored instruments and benthic landers that were deployed for periods from a few weeks to a year. The dataset also includes imagery from satellites, water column and seabed photography, scanning electron micrographs and X-ray photographs. FORTRAN source code for biogeochemical models developed during OMEX I is also included. The aim of the project was to study biogeochemical processes at the shelf break and to quantify the fluxes of material between the shelf and the open ocean. OMEX I involved scientists from 30 institutions in 10 countries. BODC is assembling the data sets collected during OMEX I into its database system and the data are also available on CD-ROM.