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  • This dataset consists of change data for areas of Broad Habitats across Great Britain between 1990 and 1998, between 1990 and 2007, and between 1998 and 2007. The data are national estimates generated by analysing the sample data from up to 591 1km squares and scaling up to a national level. The data are summarized as change in habitat area per Land Class (areas of similar environmental characteristics). The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB and using the 'ITE Land Classification' as a method of stratification. The data were collected as part of Countryside Survey, a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The Survey has been carried out at regular intervals since 1978 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 with repeated visits to the majority of squares. In addition to habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/7e2981e7-bd4c-4992-b7b0-1b1253bfd20d

  • Topsoil moisture data - gravimetric moisture content (%). Data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth. Cores from 1098 plots within 256 1km by 1km squares were measured in 1998 and 2614 plots within 591 1km x 1km squares were analysed in 2007 across Great Britain. See Emmett et al. 2010 for further details of sampling and methods (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5201/1/CS_UK_2007_TR3%5B1%5D.pdf). Estimates of mean values within selected habitats and parent material characteristics across GB were made using Countryside Survey (CS) data from 1998 and 2007 using a mixed model approach. The estimated means of habitat/parent material combinations are modelled on dominant habitat and parent material characteristics derived from the Land Cover Map 2007 and Parent Material Model 2009, respectively. The parent material characteristics used were those which minimised AIC in the model (see Data documentation). Please see Scott, 2008 for further details of similar statistical analysis (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5202/1/CS_UK_2007_TR4%5B1%5D.pdf). Areas, such as urban and littoral rock, are not sampled by CS and therefore have no associated data. Also, in some circumstances sample sizes for particular habitat / parent material combinations were insufficient to estimate mean values. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/8db84900-5fdb-43be-a607-e56c843d9b87

  • The dataset consists of a distribution map of ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) within woody linear features across Great Britain. The data is derived from Countryside Survey 2007 and includes trees recorded in lines of trees of a natural shape and lines of trees of an unnatural shape. Trees were mapped in 569 1km sample squares across Britain, and this national estimate dataset was derived from the sample data using ITE Land Classes. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/05e5d538-6be7-476d-9141-76d9328738a4

  • This dataset models positive plant habitat condition indicators across Great Britain (GB). This data provides a metric of plant diversity weighted by the species that you would expect and desire to have in a particular habitat type so indicates habitat condition. In each Countryside Survey 2007 area vegetation plot the number of positive plant habitat indicators (taken from a list created from Common Standards Monitoring Guidance and consultation with the Botanical society of the British Isles (BSBI)) for the habitat type in which the plot is located are counted. This count is then divided by the possible indicators for that habitat type (and multiplied by 100) to get a percentage value. This is extrapolated to 1km squares across GB using a generalised additive mixed model. Co-variables used in the model are Broad Habitat (the dominant broad habitat of the 1km square), air temperature, nitrogen deposition, sulphur deposition, precipitation and whether the plot is located in a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) (presence or absence data). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/cc5ae9b1-43a0-475e-9157-a9b7fccb24e7

  • Topsoil nutrient data - total nitrogen (N) concentration (%), C:N ratio and Olsen-Phosphorus (mg/kg). Data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth. Cores from 256 1km x 1km squares across Great Britain were analysed in 2007. For total N concentration (and therefore C:N ratio), a total of 1024 cores were analysed, and for Olsen-P, a total of 1054 cores were analysed. See Emmett et al. 2010 for further details of sampling and methods (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5201/1/CS_UK_2007_TR3%5B1%5D.pdf). Estimates of mean values within selected habitats and parent material characteristics across GB were made using Countryside Survey (CS) data from 1978, 1998 and 2007 using a mixed model approach. The estimated means of habitat/parent material combinations are modelled on dominant habitat and parent material characteristics derived from the Land Cover Map 2007 and Parent Material Model 2009, respectively. The parent material characteristic used was that which minimised AIC in each model (see Dataset Documentation). Please see Scott, 2008 for further details of similar statistical analysis (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5202/1/CS_UK_2007_TR4%5B1%5D.pdf). Areas, such as urban and littoral rock, are not sampled by CS and therefore have no associated data. Also, in some circumstances sample sizes for particular habitat / parent material combinations were insufficient to estimate mean values. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/7055965b-7fe5-442b-902d-63193cbe001c

  • Topsoil microbe data - Bacteria. Data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth and includes bacterial community structure as assessed by ordination scores, Shannon diversity index and Simpson diversity index. Over 1000 samples from 233 1km x 1km squares across Great Britain were sampled in 2007 and analysed. See Emmett et al. 2010 for further details of sampling and Griffiths et al. 2011 for further details of methods. Estimates of mean values within selected habitats and parent material characteristics across GB were made using Countryside Survey (CS) data from 2007 using a mixed model approach. The estimated means of habitat/parent material combinations using 2007 data are modelled on dominant habitat and parent material characteristics derived from the Land Cover Map 2007 and Parent Material Model 2009, respectively. The parent material characteristic used was that which minimised AIC in each model (see dataset documentation). Please see Scott, 2008 for further details of similar statistical analysis. Areas, such as urban and littoral rock, are not sampled by CS and therefore have no associated data. Also, in some circumstances sample sizes for particular habitat/parent material combinations were insufficient to estimate mean values. References: Emmett, B.A., Frogbrook, Z.L., Chamberlain P.M., Griffiths R., Pickup R., Poskitt, J., Reynolds B., Rowe E., Rowland P., Spurgeon D., Wilson J., Wood, C.M. (2008). Countryside Survey Technical Report No.03/07: Soils Manual. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5201/1/CS_UK_2007_TR3%5B1%5D.pdf Griffiths, R.I.; Thomson, B.C.; James, P.; Bell, T.; Bailey, M.; Whiteley, A.S. (2011). The bacterial biogeography of British soils. Environmental Microbiology, 13 (6). 1642-1654. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02480.x Scott, W.A. (2008). CS Technical Report No.4/07: Statistical Report. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5202/1/CS_UK_2007_TR4%5B1%5D.pdf Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/53210c27-87fc-46e4-a3d6-e731003dc541

  • This dataset consists of landscape point feature information for points across Great Britain, surveyed in 1984. Data are presented as rows of information recorded as point features (for example individual trees, water bodies or structures), with associated vegetation species where relevant, within a set of 382 1km squares across Great Britain, surveyed during the Countryside Survey long term monitoring project (note: not all surveyed squares contained point features). The Countryside Survey is a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, with repeated visits to the majority of squares. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. In addition to point features, habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/124b872e-036e-4dd3-8316-476b5f42c16e

  • This dataset consists of landscape point feature information for points across Great Britain, surveyed in 1990. Data are presented as rows of information recorded as point features (for example individual trees, water bodies or structures), with associated plant species where relevant, within a set of 506 1km squares across Great Britain, surveyed during the Countryside Survey long term monitoring project (note: not all surveyed squares contained point features). The Countryside Survey is a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, with repeated visits to the majority of squares. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. In addition to point features, habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/1481bc63-80d7-4d18-bcba-8804aa0a9e1b

  • This dataset models bee nectar plant richness across Great Britain (GB). It uses counts of bee nectar plants (using a list agreed with experts) in Countryside Survey area vegetation plots in 2007 and extrapolates to 1km squares across GB using a generalised additive mixed model. Co-variables used in the model are Broad Habitat (the dominant broad habitat of the 1km square), air temperature, nitrogen deposition, precipitation and altitude. This data provides a metric of the Natural Capital associated with pollination, although to measure the service itself you would require additional datasets. Understanding the distribution of bee nectar plants does provide valuable information on the potential distribution of pollinators and hence pollination. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/623a38dd-66e8-42e2-b49f-65a15d63beb5

  • Data consist of modelled estimates of observed/expected Biological Monitoring Working Party (an index for measuring the biological quality of rivers using selected families of macroinvertebrates as biological indicators) scores for freshwater streams across Great Britain (GB). The BMWP scores (1-10) are based on the principle that macroinvertebrates differ in their perceived sensitivity or tolerance to organic pollution (i.e. nutrient enrichment). Values greater than 1 indicate high water quality. Data pooled across two survey years (1998 and 2007) was used to model the relationships between headwater stream quality and catchment/stream characteristics for headwater streams across GB based on known relationships for headwater streams in Countryside Survey squares. Modelled estimates of stream water quality were based on a Boosted Regression Tree modelling approach . Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/85e7beb6-e031-4397-a090-841b8c907d1b