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  • This dataset contains monthly mean ozone output between 1979-2016 simulated by the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT model. The data contains ozone and a passive odd-oxygen tracer that is set equal to the modelled chemical Ox =O(3 P)+O(1 D)+ O3 concentration on the first day every year and then advected passively without chemistry. It was simulated using the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT three-dimensional offline chemical transport model, using σ-p vertical coordinates and identical stratospheric chemistry and aerosol loading, solar flux input and surface mixing ratios of long-lived source gases. The long-term simulation (1979-2016) was performed with a T42 horizontal resolution of approximately 2.8° latitude × 2.8° longitude and 32 levels from the surface to 60 km. The model uses horizontal winds and temperature from the reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The TOMCAT/SLIMCAT model contains a detailed description of the distribution of chemical species for the troposphere and stratosphere including heterogeneous reactions on sulfate aerosols and liquid/solid polar stratospheric clouds either with a simple or full microphysical PSC scheme, as well as chemistry reactions of the oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, chlorine and bromine families. The model uses a hybrid σ-p or σ-θ vertical coordinate and has an option to run at different horizontal resolution forced by different meteorological reanalysis. Tracer transport uses the conservation of the second order moments scheme of Prather. Vertical advection is calculated from the divergence of the horizontal mass flux.

  • These datasets contain total, non-fluorescent and bio-fluorescent aerosol particle concentrations and particle size distributions collected with University of Manchester WIBS-4M an MBS-M spectrometers during the Towards a UK Airborne Bioaerosol Climatology (BIOARC) project. Data was collected at the following ground sites: Cardington Meteorological Research Unit: MBS-M, 11/04/2019 - 09/06/2019 Chilbolton Observatory: WIBS-4D, 14/05/2019 - 14/06/2019 Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory: WIBS-4M, 03/06/2019 - 01/08/2019 Chilbolton Observatory: WIBS-4M, 10/09/2020 - 21/06/2021 Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory: MBS-M, 15/09/2020 - 03/11/2019 Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory: MBS-M, 15/04/2021 - 16/07/2021 NERC reference NE/S002049/1

  • This dataset contains water budget and Lagrangian analysis of the tropical tropopause from climate model simulations and Lagrangian trajectory calculations. This study was conducted to understand better the role of convection as water vapour enters the tropical stratosphere (above about 17.4km), in particular in future scenarios. The atmosphere component of HadGEM3, Global Atmosphere (GA) 7.0, was run for three different scenarios. Based on the SPARC Quasi-Biennial Oscillation initiative (QBOi) experiments 2,3,4, these force the atmosphere model with year 2002 conditions (e.g. of solar radiation and sea surface temperatures) every year for 21 years, so that each year experiences identical boundary conditions. The first scenario has no modifications (as a control), the second has doubled CO2 concentrations and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are increased by 2K, andthe third has quadrupled CO2 concentrations and SSTs are increased by 4K. Simulations were allowed 10 years to stabilise to their modified forcing conditions and the final 11 years were analysed further. These simulations were chosen because they give a simplified indication of how the atmosphere might change in the 21st century. A second component to this dataset is estimates of water vapour entering the stratosphere with the available output. For this, climate model output was used for Lagrangian calculations which were conducted with the OFFLINE trajectory model. Records includes: -increments of all model processes that affect water vapour and ice (to get a full water budget) at grid points around the tropical tropopause (altitude of 17.4km and 18.0km, 40degS - 40degN and 180W - 180E) as monthly means of 6 hourly instantaneous values across the first two years after stabilisation. - locations and timing of model grid points above the minimum saturation mixing ratio in the vertical profile (the dry point) that exhibit convective ice injection (fast transport of ice by strong cloud processes) - monthly mean values of estimates of water vapour concentration above the tropical tropopause. These values include the HadGEM3 calculation, and proxies based on the dry point or on Lagrangian (trajectory-following) calculations of water vapour passing through the tropical tropopause. These records are analysed in: Smith, J. W., Bushell, A. C., Butchart.,N. , Haynes, P. H., Maycock, A. C., The effect of convective injection of ice on stratospheric water vapor in a changing climate, Geophysical Research Letters, submitted 12/21. Links for further information: HadGEM3: https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/approach/modelling-systems/unified-model/climate-models/hadgem3 QBOi experiment: Butchart, N., Anstey, J. A., Hamilton, K., Osprey, S., McLandress, C., Bushell, A. C., … Yukimoto, S. (2018). Overview of experiment design and comparison of models participating in phase 1 of the SPARC Quasi-Biennial Oscillation initiative (QBOi). Geoscientific Model Development, 11(3), 1009–1032. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-1009-2018 OFFLINE trajectory model: http://www.met.reading.ac.uk/~swrmethn/offline/

  • HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. The dataset at 12 km resolution is derived from the associated 1 km x 1 km resolution to allow for comparison to data from climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1862 to 2019, but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution. The gridded data are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost. This data set supersedes the previous versions of this dataset which also superseded UKCP09 gridded observations. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation). For this version of note is that historical data recovery has improved monthly rainfall 1862-1910, daily rainfall 1883-1910, monthly temperature 1900-1909, and additional sunshine grids for 1919-1928 have been added. Additionally, this version has corrected the grid definition used for the 12 km grid product to match UKCP18 climate model products. The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The data recovery activity to supplement 19th and early 20th Century data availability has also been funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC grant ref: NE/L01016X/1) project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK". The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.

  • This dataset contains the data used to plot results found in the Suppression of surface ozone by an aerosol-inhibited photochemical ozone regime journal article published in Nature Geoscience. The simulations were run using the GEOS-Chem V12.8 chemical transport model at 0.5-degree horizontal resolution over the domain 170W-170E, 10S-60N using 2017 meteorological data for 1750, 1970 and 2014 emissions scenarios. July 2017 GEOS-FP (forward-processing) meteorological fields were used for all simulations. Three experimental runs were performed using 1750 emissions; no sea salt, no dust and no biomass burning emissions. One experiment was run using 1970 emissions; no shipping emissions. Three experimental runs were performed using 2014 emissions with three different HO2 uptake coefficients; 0.1, 0.05 and 0 (no uptake). Surface data is archived for all simulations, additionally, data at pressure levels 200 hPa, and 500 hPa 800 hPa were archived for 2014.

  • The NERC-funded Microphysics of Antarctic Clouds (MAC) project was centred on an aircraft campaign measuring clouds, aerosols, and boundary layer properties over the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. These data are simulations of the Polar-optimised Weather Research and Forecasting (PWRF) model for 5 configurations of the model's Morrison microphysics scheme, produced for a case study of two separate flights over the same region during the campaign (British Antarctic Survey MASIN twin-otter aircraft flights 218 an 219 on 27th November 2015). Each simulation contains data from two domains - a parent domain with 5km grid size and a nest with a 1km grid size. The control simulation used default physics options in the PWRF model's Morrison microphysics scheme. For the no-threshold, 2xHM, 5xHM, 10xHM simulations, thresholds restricting Hallett-Mossop secondary ice production in the PWRF model's Morrison microphysics scheme were removed, and for the 2xHM, 5xHM, and 10xHM cases the corresponding ice multiplication factor was increased by a factor of 2, 5 or 10. In all simulations, an approximation of the DeMott et al., 2010 (PNAS) parametrization used for primary ice nucleation. Methodology and further details can be found in Young et al., 2019 (Geophysical Research Letters): Radiative effects of secondary ice enhancement in coastal Antarctic clouds.

  • HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. The dataset at 5 km resolution is derived from the associated 1 km x 1 km resolution to allow for comparison to data from UKCP18 climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1836 to 2021, but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution. The gridded data are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost. This data set supersedes the previous versions of this dataset which also superseded UKCP09 gridded observations. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation). The changes for v1.1.0.0 HadUK-Grid datasets are as follows: * The addition of data for calendar year 2021 * The addition of 30 year averages for the new reference period 1991-2020 * An update to 30 year averages for 1961-1990 and 1981-2010. This is an order of operation change. In this version 30 year averages have been calculated from the underlying monthly/seasonal/annual grids (grid-then-average) in previous version they were grids of interpolated station average (average-then-grid). This order of operation change results in small differences to the values, but provides improved consistency with the monthly/seasonal/annual series grids. However this order of operation change means that 1961-1990 averages are not included for sfcWind or snowlying variables due to the start date for these variables being 1969 and 1971 respectively. * A substantial new collection of monthly rainfall data have been added for the period before 1960. These data originate from the rainfall rescue project (Hawkins et al. 2022) and this source now accounts for 84% of pre-1960 monthly rainfall data, and the monthly rainfall series has been extended back to 1836. Net changes to the input station data used to generate this dataset: -Total of 122664065 observations -118464870 (96.5%) unchanged -4821 (0.004%) modified for this version -4194374 (3.4%) added in this version -5887 (0.005%) deleted from this version The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The output from a number of data recovery activities relating to 19th and early 20th Century data have been used in the creation of this dataset, these activities were supported by: the Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme; the Natural Environment Research Council project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK"; the UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) Strategic Priorities Fund UK Climate Resilience programme; The UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Public Engagement programme; the National Centre for Atmospheric Science; National Centre for Atmospheric Science and the NERC GloSAT project; and the contribution of many thousands of public volunteers. The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.

  • This dataset contains global spatially predicted sea-surface iodide concentrations at a monthly resolution. This dataset was developed as part of the NERC project Iodide in the ocean:distribution and impact on iodine flux and ozone loss (NE/N009983/1), which aimed to quantify the dominant controls on the sea surface iodide distribution and improve parameterisation of the sea-to-air iodine flux and of ozone deposition. The main ensemble prediction ("Ensemble Monthly mean ") is provided in a NetCDF (1) file as a single variable. A second file (2) is provided which includes all of the predictions and the standard deviation on the prediction. (1) predicted_iodide_0.125x0.125_Ns_Just_Ensemble.nc (2) predicted_iodide_0.125x0.125_Ns_All_Ensemble_members.nc This is the output of the paper 'A machine learning based global sea-surface iodide distribution' (see related documentation). For ease of use, this output has been re-gridded to various commonly used atmosphere and ocean model resolutions (see table SI table A5 in paper). These re-gridded files are included in the folder titled "regridded_data". Additionally, a file (3) is provided including the prediction made included data from the Skagerak dataset. As stated in the paper referenced above, it is recommended to use the use the core files (1,2) or their re-gridded equivalents. (3) predicted_iodide_0.125x0.125_All_Ensemble_members.nc As new observations are made, we will update the global dataset through a "living data" model. The dataset versions archived here follow semantic versioning (https://semver.org/). The pre-review dataset is achieved in the folder named v0.0.0, with the with publically released versions numbered starting from v1.0.0. Please refer to the referenced paper (see related documentation) for the current version number and information on this.

  • HadUK-Grid is a collection of gridded climate variables derived from the network of UK land surface observations. The data have been interpolated from meteorological station data onto a uniform grid to provide complete and consistent coverage across the UK. The dataset at 12 km resolution is derived from the associated 1 km x 1 km resolution to allow for comparison to data from climate projections. The dataset spans the period from 1836 to 2021, but the start time is dependent on climate variable and temporal resolution. The gridded data are produced for daily, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales, as well as long term averages for a set of climatological reference periods. Variables include air temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), precipitation, sunshine, mean sea level pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, vapour pressure, days of snow lying, and days of ground frost. This data set supersedes the previous versions of this dataset which also superseded UKCP09 gridded observations. Subsequent versions may be released in due course and will follow the version numbering as outlined by Hollis et al. (2018, see linked documentation). The changes for v1.1.0.0 HadUK-Grid datasets are as follows: * The addition of data for calendar year 2021 * The addition of 30 year averages for the new reference period 1991-2020 * An update to 30 year averages for 1961-1990 and 1981-2010. This is an order of operation change. In this version 30 year averages have been calculated from the underlying monthly/seasonal/annual grids (grid-then-average) in previous version they were grids of interpolated station average (average-then-grid). This order of operation change results in small differences to the values, but provides improved consistency with the monthly/seasonal/annual series grids. However this order of operation change means that 1961-1990 averages are not included for sfcWind or snowlying variables due to the start date for these variables being 1969 and 1971 respectively. * A substantial new collection of monthly rainfall data have been added for the period before 1960. These data originate from the rainfall rescue project (Hawkins et al. 2022) and this source now accounts for 84% of pre-1960 monthly rainfall data, and the monthly rainfall series has been extended back to 1836. Net changes to the input station data used to generate this dataset: -Total of 122664065 observations -118464870 (96.5%) unchanged -4821 (0.004%) modified for this version -4194374 (3.4%) added in this version -5887 (0.005%) deleted from this version The primary purpose of these data are to facilitate monitoring of UK climate and research into climate change, impacts and adaptation. The datasets have been created by the Met Office with financial support from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in order to support the Public Weather Service Customer Group (PWSCG), the Hadley Centre Climate Programme, and the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) project. The output from a number of data recovery activities relating to 19th and early 20th Century data have been used in the creation of this dataset, these activities were supported by: the Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme; the Natural Environment Research Council project "Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK"; the UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) Strategic Priorities Fund UK Climate Resilience programme; The UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Public Engagement programme; the National Centre for Atmospheric Science; National Centre for Atmospheric Science and the NERC GloSAT project; and the contribution of many thousands of public volunteers. The dataset is provided under Open Government Licence.

  • Range corrected lidar signal and volume depolarisation ratio data from the Met Office's Raymetrics LR111-D300 lidar located at the Met Office observations enclosure near Portglenone, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. Data available from June 2018 onwards, though the instrument is only operated sporadically (see below for further details). This instrument is one of a suite of 10 Raman lidars deployed by the Met Office around the UK to complement a wider network of ceilometers within the "LIDARNET" upper air monitoring network. Returns from these instruments form a range of products for use in forecasting and hazard detection. The backscatter profiles can allow detection of aerosol species such as volcanic ash where suitable instrumentation is deployed. The primary aim of the Raman lidar network is the detection and quantification of volcanic ash aerosols during a volcanic event, and the network is only test fired only for a few hours each week. Outside of these times the lidars may be fired if there is a mineral dust outbreak or other such aerosol event of interest. The lidars will not fire if any precipitation is detected. Raman channel data are not presently available from this instrument in the CEDA archives.