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This dataset contains NH3 air quality data measurements taken in from Mukuru in Nairobi using passive samplers. This data was taken as part of the NERC funded project Taking forward the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) resolution: Pilot to determine the air quality drivers for Sub-Saharan Africa (NE/P008453/1). This pilot project, AQD-Nairobi, was designed to integrate low and high temporal resolution low-cost air quality (AQ) measurements to determine AQ drivers in Nairobi and be an exemplar scientific study for sub-Saharan Africa.
This dataset contains No2 air quality data measurements taken in from Mukuru in Nairobi using passive samplers. This data was taken as part of the NERC funded project Taking forward the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) resolution: Pilot to determine the air quality drivers for Sub-Saharan Africa (NE/P008453/1). This pilot project, AQD-Nairobi, was designed to integrate low and high temporal resolution low-cost air quality (AQ) measurements to determine AQ drivers in Nairobi and be an exemplar scientific study for sub-Saharan Africa.
The site was setup in 1995 to measure meteorology, trace gases, aerosols and their fluxes. It is (55ᵒ47’36” N, 3°14’41” W) an ombrotrophic peatland with an extensive fetch at an elevation of 270 m, lying 18 km SSW of Edinburgh, and can be categorised as a transitional lowland raised bog. The site is grazed with < 1 sheep ha^-1. During 2000s the site activity has increased and was established in 2006 as EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Program, Level 2/3) supersite for the UK. Long term monitoring is led by NERC CEH with contributions from other organisations/research institutes including Ricardo AEA, BureauVeritas, NPL, the University of Birmingham and University of Edinburgh. In April 2014 the site was awarded WMO GAW regional station (World Meteorological Orgamisation Global Atmospheric Watch). In 2017 the site joined the ICOS network (Integrated Carbon Observation System). The meteorological measurements were initially made to assist with interpretation of the fluxes and as such weren't installed with the intention of providing WMO standard measurements but since 2014 we have been moving towards these standards as well as enhancing instrumentation. The dataset includes the following parameters at half hourly intervals, although not every variable is available from 1995 to 2016: -T_upper_Avg - initially used to estimate senisble heat fluxes, fine wire type-E thermocouple. -T_lower_Avg - initially used to estimate senisble heat fluxes, fine wire type-E thermocouple. -T_RHT_Avg - Temperature measured by a Vailsala relative humidity and temperature probe. -RH_RHT_Avg - Relative humidity measured by a Vailsala relative humidity and temperature probe. -P_Avg - atmospheric pressure at the sites elevation. -Tot_Solar_Avg - Total solar radiation measured by a Skye SKS1110. -PAR_Avg - Photosynthetically Averaged Radiation measured by a Skye SKP215. -NetRad_Avg - Net radiation, Kipp & Zonen NrLite. -Rainfall - tipping bucket rainfall. -SoilTavg - Average soil temperature from four type-E thermocouple probes. -Soil Heat Flux - calculated from two measurements of soil heat flux with Hukseflux HFP01 plates, corrected to surface flux using the standard formula. -Cs = Bd(Cd+fSWC.Cw) -SC = DTs.Cs.d/Dtime -SHF = Plate Average + SC -DTs = change in average soil temperature from start to end of measurement period (first and last two minutes); d = plate depth 0.2 m; Bd = soil bulk density, 100 kg m-3; cd = Specific Heat Dry Soil, 840J kg-1 K-1; fSWC = fractional soil water content, measured or 0.9; cw = Specific Capacilty Heat of Water, 4190 J kg-1 K-1; Dtime = measurement period, 1800 s -Soil Moisture - soil water content measured with TDR probes, campbell CS616 -WindSpd (measured) - measured by a Gill R3 then Windmaster sonic anemometer at 3.6 m -WindSpd 10 m - for most of the time period this is estimated from the turbulence measurements and 3.6 m windspeed but from 22/06/2016 a Gill Windsonic 2D anemeometer measures at 10 m -Wind Dir - measured by the sonic anemometer at 3.6 m -snow_depth_Avg - Campbell Scientific SR50A-L Sonic Ranging Sensor -Present Weather - Vaisala FD12P Present Weather Sensor -1 hr Past Weather - Vaisala FD12P Present Weather Sensor -Visibility - Vaisala FD12P Present Weather Sensor -Evaporation - to be estimated from the water-vapout flux measurements For modelling purposes gapfilled (variables with _gf suffixes) times series will be included, they are created by linearly initially interpolating across upto an hours missing data, filling with colocated measurements (adjusted by linear interpolation with the core data), filling with measurements from nearby sites (adjusted by linear interpolation with the core data). Ta_gf P_gf RH_gf Total_Solar_gf Rainfall_gf Windspd 10m_gf Wind Dir_gf
This dataset contains carbon dioxide concentration measurements from the British Antarctic Survey's Halley Research Station in Antarctica. The Picarro G2301 analyser was used for the measurement of carbon dioxide and located at the Clean Air Sector Laboratory (CASLab). Data times were averaged from the 1 minute data to provide hourly data sets. The UK participation of Southern OceaN optimal Approach To Assess the carbon state, variability and climatic drivers (SONATA) was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC, grant: NE/P021360/1).
This dataset contains sulphur concentrations and isotopic values found in tree rings. Samples were collected from several sites in Italy and in the UK. In Italy, samples were collected within a 4km radius of the Ernesto Cave (NE Italian Alps) using 5 and 12 mm diameter increment borers. Standard dendroecological procedures were used to produce absolutely dated records and mean ring-width chronologies. Thirty individual trees were used to build a master chronology for sample cores collected from Abies alba (type of fir tree)). Of the collected cores, two trees (Abies 1, cambial age 160; and Abies 2, cambial age 90) underwent preliminary investigation for sulphur concentration and intra-cellular speciation as a background to developing a method for extracting sulphur isotopes from the same samples. In sampling the trees, no oils, polish wax or lubricant was used to reduce potential contamination from sulphurcontaining compounds. Wood powders were extracted by carefully drilling 5-year blocks of dated rings to yield a well-mixed, representative sample of approximately 40 mg for sulphur isotope analysis. On a sub-section of the conifer samples, a cold resin extraction was conducted using a 9:1 high purity (Aristar grade) acetone:water mixture for 48 h, followed by multiple washes with hot and cold deionised water to remove the potentially mobile resinous component and any surface bound mobile (soluble) sulphur. Samples were also collected in the UK from Beech, Oak, Sycamore and Ash trees at sites near Lancaster, Manchester and Grizedale. Then all samples were analysed by continuous-ﬂow-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry using an Isoprime 100 mass spectrometer linked to an Elementar Pyrocube analyser at the University of Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre. The results are presented in this dataset.